The beginning of jousting
The origins of jousting are believed to be in classical Rome, but the "sport" rose to its greatest popularity in Europe by the 1400's. It all evolved from mock battles in which knights on horseback, assisted by foot soldiers, formed into teams and charged at each other in some wide meadow.
The result was a "melee" (the word hasn't changed in a millennium) of shattered lances, clanging swords, flailing arms and legs - astride and afoot - that went on all day and into the night. The earliest recorded melee was in 1066 A.D., though mock combat had probably been around for at least a century by then.
The many deaths which resulted from such "sport" let Popes and English kings to ban jousting tournaments, though English subjects often persisted and were repeatedly excommunicated. The tournaments had become a featured attraction at any kind of market faire or other significant gathering. At the height of their popularity, jousts rivaled a state fair, Super Bowl, rock concert and Octoberfest all rolled into one.
By the middle 1200's, the joust emerged as the favored way to prove which of two (or more) knights was better. Most contests were a "Joust a Plaisir" (for pleasure) in which a winner was declared on the basis of points scored, though some were still conducted "a l'Outrance" (to the death). In the sporting version, the knights' swords were dulled and their lances tipped with "coronals" (little crowns) to prevent their penetrating a joint in the armor. Some authorities believe that the lances were deliberately weakened, a precaution still in effect today.
Annually, jousting is celebrated with daily tournaments at the Arizona Renaissance Festival.
The training of a knight included spearing a small ring, some on stanchions and some tossed in the air, and quintain jousting. (Ring jousting is today the state sport in Maryland.)
In quintain jousting, the knight tilted with a mock opponent which sat on a revolving pedestal. If he was inaccurate or too slow, the jouster might get whacked by the sand bag on the other end of the contraption.
These quintain devices are thought to be the precursors of Victorian carrousels. Many turn-of-the-century carrousels had a variety of things to grab, including a brass ring which entitled the bearer to a free ride.
Jousting historical ban
England's King Edward lll put a temporary public ban on jousting in 1370 but an intrepid troupe of stunt riders and actors brought it back in the 1980's. Clad in authentic looking breastplates and helmets, wielding heavy lances, maces and blunted swords, they will thrill the throngs at the Arizona Renaissance Festival.
Some fakery, as in professional wrestling, is to be expected. Victor and vanquished are usually agreed to beforehand. As in many Medieval tournaments, even the exact number of blows is often settled.
Photos and text courtesy of the Arizona Renaissance Festival