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"Old Tucson; a hop, skip and jump history from 1539 Indian settlement to new and greater Tucson"

by Estelle M. Buehman



Finally in 1863, President Lincoln signed the bill giving Arizona a separate and distinct ter- ritorial government. Hon. John Gurly was the first appointed governor, but as he died in New York City before the other officials were ready to leave the east for their western post of duty, the Hon. John Goodwin was appointed to the vacancy. Richard C. McCormick, appointed first territorial secretary, become our second acting governor.

In the distribution of official trusts, Hon. Charles D. Poston, though he had been a good friend of the territory, and a pioneer miner since 1856, was left out, and when he made complaint of the omission he was told that he might be superintendent of Indian affairs— certainly an unenviable position, but then it was an office.

In December of this year the official staff reached Navajo Springs, under escort of troops sent out by General Carleton. Whether he accompanied the troops or not in person, he was responsible for the location of the capital in Northern Arizona, for though as yet the valuable, undiscovered mining properties in that section had not created a town, yet General Carleton thought it no harm to the territory to have two thrifty growing centers of trade instead of one, and the formal organization of the territory took place at Navajo Springs, forty miles northwest of the famous Zuni pueblo. Upon the raising of the flag, Secretary McCormick announced the sovereignty of the United States, and made an appropriate speech. It seems peculiar that Governor Goodwin is not mentioned as taking any part in this observance.

The party soon moved westward as far as Fort Whipple, where General Carleton had erected barracks for the protection of miners and stockmen, and while the official staff remained at the barracks, Fort Whipple was the seat of government. Again moving westward, but determined to humiliate Tucson for her criticisms of his proclamation of martial law, General Carleton, though knowing that Tucson was the intended capital, halted at the present site of Prescott, and there the capital permanently re- mained for a number of years.

In 1868 however Tucson came into her own, the capital being moved here, where it remained for nine years, then was transferred again to Prescott, and later still, as being more central, to Phoenix.

Just at the time that negotiations were pending concerning the Gadsden Purchase, and prior to its transfer to the United States, Major Emery, of the United States Survey Service, was stationed in the immediate vicinity of Tucson, and gives the follow- ing interesting description:

"Tucson is inhabited by a few Mexican troops, and their families, together with some tame Indians. The town is very prettily situated in a fertile valley at the base of the Santa Catalina Mountains. Some fine fields of corn and Wheat were ready for the sickle, and many varieties of fruits and vegetables were to be had. The Indians, under direction of the Mexicans, do most of the labor in the fields. While in camp we were the recipients of every attention and civility from Captain Garcia, who commanded the place.

"I saw in Tucson a fine specimen of meteoric iron from the Santa Rita Mountains, which is used as a blacksmith's anvil."

Later I learned that this specimen was sent to the Smithsonian Institute at Washington,where a model of it was made, and sent back to Tucson, and this model may be seen in the museum at the Territorial University.

While all these things had been going on, there was also another little wave of interest taking place, showing how even in the trails of civilization, men look to intellectual development and intelligent edu- cational facilities.

In 1858 John Wrightson brought the first printing press to this region, presumably Tucson, since everything else, including Indians, came to Tucson, and the Weekly Arizonan was established at Tubac, with Mr. Ed. Cross as editor.

Over this press some trouble occurred, and a duel was fought between Mr. Cross and the traveled Mr. Mowry, after which it became the property of Mr. Mowry, who left it in charge of Mr. Oury at Tucson, where a Mr.Pierce,good writer ,but unfortunate drunkard and borrower, got out a few copies, then left for parts unknown, and Mr. DeLong purchased the press, assuming the editorship for that year. He then put it into the hands of one Dooner, who, chang- ing the politics into that of a Democratic sheet, so disgruntled the Republican supporters of the Weekly Arizonan that Major DeLong sold the press to John Wasson (afterward Surveyor General) who in 1870 founded the Citizen.

In 1875 R. C. Brown became a partner. In 1878 John Clum bought and m oved it to Florence, but in 1879 the Citizen again appeared in Tucson, when R. C. Brown became its proprietor and was for many years identified with its interests.

This press is now in Tombstone, and was, until recently, used in printing "The Nugget" of that city. We would recommend that it be sent to the Smith- sonian Institute, along with the old meteoric anvil, a model of it returned to the Territorial University Museum, or turned over to the Pioneer Historical Society in Tucson.

The Arizona Daily Star was first started as the "Bulletin," March 1st, 1877, by L. C. Hughes, Esq., and Mr. Chas. Tully, then almost immediately changed to the Tri-Weekly Star. In August of the same year it was issued as a weekly, with Mr. Hughes sole pro- prietor. This paper, like the Citizen, has, for the most part, issued both daily and weekly editions. In politics the Star is Democratic, yet the interests of the people, and the development of the resources of the territory, have been paramount. The various stages of successive growth of both papers is a reflex of the increasing business activity and wonder- ful growth of this section of Arizona.

El Fronterizo, published in Spanish, and ably edited by its proprietor, Don Carlos I. Velasco, was established in September, 1878.

The Daily Journal, independent in politics, and the Weekly Mining Journal, devoted to mining interests, were both issued from the office of their founder, E. P. Thompson, Esq., in June, 1881.

Evidently Tucson has no reason to be ashamed of her press advantages and privileges.

Soon after the Gadsden Purchase was effected, the Cerro Colorado mine, under Col. Charles D. Poston, the Ajo,and later, the Silver King, Quijotoa, Copper Queen, Clifton, Morenci,Bradshaw, San Xavier, and other mines, were opened and worked. Companies organized in New York and Cincinnati operated extensively in these districts. The rich mines were lodestones drawing population westward to Tucson, Prescott, Globe and Tombstone.

The picture here shown (above) is that of the first shipment of silver bullion, valued at $50,000,from what is now the Consolidated Tombstone Mine, and which was sent by stage to the Safford, Hudson & Co.'s bank on West Congress Street, Tucson. The stage, an old time Concord coach, was guarded, externally, by armed outriders, and internally, by men armed to kill any would-be robbers. It presented a comical appearance, with loaded guns sticking out on all sides, and the whole town turned out to witness its arrival with its load of princely treasure. The wealth of this mine was fabulous in early days—the product in 1882, alone, being $1,440,895.

After the withdrawal of the California volunteers from Tucson in 1866,and their places filled by regu- lars who didn't seem to understand ambush methods of Indian warfare, Arizona suffered many heart breaking experiences. Mistaken sympathy for "Lo, the poor Indian," among Eastern philanthropists, ex- tended also into army circles, and leaders of troops were prone to go into camp as soon as they struck an Indian trail, and there remain until the scoundrels had escaped their so-called pursuers.

Sometimes, the citizens, driven to desperation, rose in their might and took swift and just vengeance. One notable instance of this was the Camp Grant massacre, which came about in this way: In February, 1871, a band of Apaches, known as the Aravaipa, or Pinal Apaches, being short of rations, came into Camp Grant, on the San Pedro, and made a verbal treaty by which they were to be supplied with rations, and were to live in the vicinity of the camp It was then expected that depredations around Tuc- son and San Pedro would cease, but instead, the I dians became worse and worse, and what looked worse than ever, the trail of the marauders when- ever followed led directly to the Indian camp in the vicinity of old Camp Grant.

When this was known public meetings were held in Tucson, resolutions were passed, petitions were sent to military headquarters, then in Los Angeles, setting forth the facts and asking assistance, but no action was taken Parties upon traveled roads were attacked, robbed and killed; ranchmen and stock driven from their ranches, and a man named Wooster and his wife, on the Santa Cruz, killed, as well as others, and all the trails led to this treacherous Indian camp. To settle the matter beyond doubt three Papago trailers were hired to follow these depredators, without being told what it was for. Three trails were followed, three reports made, and all agreed as to the place—to the very Indians whom the United States were supporting with rations to prey upon the struggling settlers. This was too great a wrong to be borne, and silently an expedition was organized, consisting of fifty Papago Indians and five Americans, who went forth in just defense of their homes and lives. Arriving at the Indian camp at break of day, Sunday, April 30th, 1871,they completely surprised the murderers, and made an end of the lot, about eighty-seven, and not one of the expedition was killed, or even wounded. Among their camp effects were found the murdered Mrs. Wooster's dress and Mr. Wooster's leggings, with his initials upon them—also seven horses from Tucson, or its -vicinity, one a very recent theft.

Of course this total extinction of a camp, though well merited and entirely justifiable, made a great commotion in the East, and Gen. W. T. Sherman, then commanding the army, and not knowing of the con- stant depredations carried on against the white set- tlers, recommended that all the parties engaged in the affair should be tried for their lives. Accordingly all were arrested and tried in our territorial court in this city, for Tucson was at that time the capital. Judge Titus presided, and every man was acquitted, for no jury in Arizona at that time would convict parties for killing hostile Indians. At last the gen- eral government was compelled to take notice, and Gen. George Crook was put in command, arriving in the territory in June, 1871, and came prepared to take summary action.

However, through influence of eastern philanthropists, tue soothing methods went on, but the scourge becoming unbearable, General Crook took matters in his own hand, and with scouts and troops punished the rascals until they were glad to submit and humbly begged to be allowed to settle upon reservations. This was done, and peace and quiet reigned for a while, and the entire territory, with its rapidly growing towns and pros- perous mines, made great advancement. Yet the spirit of unrest and desire for pillage and bloodshed stirred the Indians of San Carlos reservation, and in 1885 a small band, under Geronimo, one of the cruel- est of savages, broke loose from the agency, and went on the warpath. They terrorized ranches, operated in the vicinity of Benson and Tanque Verde, and from tracks seen they were thought to be lurking around Tucson.

About this time when returning to the San Pedro after bringing his family to Tucson, the brother of the late W. C. Davis was shot on the new county road, just then built between Tucson and the settlement of Reddington, on the San Pedro, from which place they had corne. Then General Miles was sent to Tucson and following the depredators with scouts and trailers, he captured Geronimo and a part of the band in the Chiricahua Mountains, and the balance promised to come in, which thing for once they felt compelled to do. Geronimo and some others were sent to Fort Sill, from whence it was proclaim- ed that he was sorry for his sins and was teach- ing a class in Sunday school, but civilization preyed upon his health, and he petitioned the White Father at Washington—fearing he would go into a decline— to be allowed to return to San Carlos Reservation to recuperate; but at last the United States govern- ment had its eyes opened, and Mr. Geronimo had to remain at Fort Sill until he died. It is to be hoped that his old spook didn't meet the shades of those he had tortured and murdered in Arizona, as the interview might have been unpleasant for parties on both sides.

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