"Sefer Yetsirah" and Jewish Mysiticsm Time Line
Compiled by Robert Zucker (c) All rights reserved.
"Sefer Yetzirah" Home Page
New Book on Kabbalah Secrets Now Published!
These pages are from the new book on the legends and history of the Kabbalah and the Ushabti, Kabbalah's Secret Circles,
Read some of the chapters and download a free PDF sample of the book to preview. Also, download other free books on Kabbalah. This book is available on Amazon.com.
Tannian (scribers, scholar)
The tradition reached R. Joseph and R. Sira (Zera), both of who knew the mysteries of the Merkabah.
It was then in the hands of the Talmudic sages and in use until the middle of the 5th century.
Others suggest that the book "Sefer Yetzirah" was written about 200AD. It is often mentioned as being written during period of 1st or beginning of 2nd c AD. (Graetz,104-110), in early centuries of the Christian Church, especially when ideas and views of Gnostics were in vogue. He later revokes opinion.
The written version has affinities with Babylonian, Egyptian and Hellenistic mysticism during the 2nd century BCE, when such a combination of influences was present. It became one of the most frequently and earliest published works of Jewish lore. was the first sytematic treastie of Jewish mysticism between the 3rd & 6th century. It's influences were late Hellenistic and possibly Neoplatonic mathematical mysticism combined with Rabbinic Merkabah theories.
The Book is said to be Abraham's meditations on the laws of creation immediately before his first revelation from Gd (Gen 12.1-3). It portray the origin of the universe in the combinations, reversals, and augmentations of the letters and symbols which underline all human speech.
About the same time the "Sefer Yetzirah: appeared, Talmudic stories about Rav Sira, Hanina and Oshaya's creations also circulated.
300-600 (3rd-5th century AD during the Geonic period, and the "Sefer Yetzirah"), "Sefer Yetzirah, in the Geonic period 3-900AD" may have also been written down. Sadaya (10thc) and Halevi (12thc) both said the treastie was "ancient." This was during the time of the Mishna or beginning of period of Talmud (Ginzberg, Epstein, Graetz).
Earliest reference to the "Sefer Yetzirah" appears in the "Baraita di-Shemu'el" and in poems by Eleazar ha-Kalir. (Scholem, Kabblah," p.28)
750-931 Geonic Period when R. Akiba lived- during the post-Tamudic times
Two versions of "Sefer Yetzirah" during this time. The original version was mixed with an early commentary referred to as ""Sefer Yetzirah" II." All commentaries written since the beginning of the 10th century are based on this commenary and not the original says several authors. At the turn of the ninth century, Baghdad Jews were in contact with Arabic philosophy, influenced by Greek rationalism.
882 (892)-942 Se'adia Ga'on of Fajum . He wrote "Letters of Our Father Abraham" his "Commentary on the "Sefer Yezirah."
"Sefer Yetzirah" re-emerged. It was established that Abraham was the author of the book. Arab Rasis (quoted by the 14th c Christian writer) on genertaing a human being by putting an unnamed substance in a vase filled with horse manure for 3 days.
"Sefer Yetzirah" "Ch (Grienwald) T.-s. 32/5 (published by Haberman in Sinai X (1947, pp. 241. Written either in Palestine or Egypt.
913-982 R. Shabbati Donnolo (Italy) "Long" recension of the "Sefer Yezirah." In his "Commentary on Sefer Yezirah", fol. 69c: "He [Gd] permuted the speech according to its letters and its vocalizations. [niqqudav]." (Idel, "Golem," p.75)
931 Sa'adiya Gaon publishes the first rendition of "Sefer Yetzirah" in Egypt. The first recession of text becomes available in Oxford 1533. a commentary published in Hebrew at Mantua with the "Sefer Yetsirah" (Bartilocci, iv.267, ref: Waite, Lit of Kab, 175). Now preserved in the Bodleian Library. The original Arabic version was republished in Paris by Lambert in 1891/1892
955/6 or 8. Abu Sahl Dunash ibn Tamin recession of "Sefer Yetzirah" published with Gaon's commentary on the short version by Tanin. Made in Kairiun. Parts of this Arabic original were found in the Cairo Genizah. It was preserved in various editions from a later revision and an abbreviated form of the original Hebrew. One version repubished in 1902, (2ns pub. Oxford Ms. 2250, Grossberg. published by A.M. Haberman (1947). Short version used in Commentary by Tanin. In the 10th century several versions existed. Divided into 6 chapters of mushnayot or halakot. This is the earliest written form of the "Sefer Yetzirah."
There are 3 main recensions of the book, except for one (Se'adian, published by Scholem and Vajda) they are all defective (the "long" and "short" recension). They mainly differ from each other in length of the text and organization of the material. There are not that many differences between them. Two versions of "Sefer Yetzirah" from 9th century mixed the original ""Sefer Yetzirah"" with an early commentary, referred to as ""Sefer Yetzirah" II"
Shorter & longer version (longer printed as an appendix) Existed in 10th c. Its earliest written form was about the 11c (?), found in Cairo Genizah, published by AM Haberman (1947). It is divided into six chapters of mishnayot or halakot.
1021-1069 (or 58), Jewish poet (A decend. of R. Eljah, Zevi Ashkenazi told a similar story: Jacob Emdem, ("Megillath Sefer,"Warsaw, 1896 p4) told the story to his son. Jacob E. except the Rabbi only received scratches.
1040-1105 Talmudic exegist Rashi of Troyes, France, discusses creation techniques of "Sefer Yetzirah" with the creation of man in the Talmud. He says: "They used to combine the letters of the Name (Shem Ha-M) by which the universe was created. This is not to be considered forbidden magic. For the words (works) of Gd were brought into being through His Holy Name." In his treastie "Erubim," he mentions the "Sefer Yetzirah."
1060 R. Solomon ibn Gabirol was said to have created a woman, a maid servant ("Mimekor Yisrael, p. 752). He was denounced bv other Jewish leaders for his heathenism. R. Byron L. Sherwin tells a similar story.
In the beginning of the 12th century, as a reaction against the rationialsim of the previous era, Jewish masters began to elaborate on the golem. A work by Judah ben Barzilai, Judah ben, discussions of the golem of Barcelonia, or southern France or Catalonia wrote a book on the "Sefer Yetzirah" citing many old versions. It also bore the the title "Each man who looks at it [i.e., who contemplatively immerses himself in it, tzafah], his wisdom is beyond measure,"- that is, comparable to the creative wisdom of Gd." At the beginning and end bears the title "Hilkhoth Yetsirah" and also "Alphabet of Our Father Abraham." "Othioth de-Abraham Avinu."
Discussion about the i.golem creation began appearing in commentaries on the "Sefer Yetzirah" during this period. In these commentaries, the word "Golem" also began to appear as a technical term for an artificially creatred being by applying the mysteries of the "Sefer Yetzirah." Medieval Jews and Christians believed that man has the power to create human life- "matter without form."
1100-1200 German Hasidic Ashkenazi (Piestist) movement in German develops the golem legend. From them comes the word "Golem." It was used to designate the creature made by the invocation of names during mystical rites. It was essentially a symbolic spiritual experience. The Hasidics attained a successful creation as a culmination of their studies of the "Sefer Yetzirah" and other texts. The golem eventualy developed into an actual creatue as a servant to his master and dulfilling mineal tasks, such as housework.
1100 a golem was reportedly fashioned at the time of the Crusades in France by R. Samuel, the Kabalist, father of Judah Chassid, and author of the "Book of the Pious" ("Sefer Chasidim"). He claimed he could make a golem, but could not make it talk. It accompanied hm wherever he went as a servent and bodyguard.
1160-1238 R. Eleazar of Worms wrote a commentary on the "Sefer Yetzirah" called "Pe'ullah ha-yetsirah" ("practice or practical application of...") along with R. Yehuda he-Hasid, both leading Ashkenazi Hasidic leaders. Eleazar wrote down recipies for creating a golem. Dust is molded into the shape of a body and the letters are permutated (according to the "Sefer Yetzirah."
Late 12th c. The Book "Bahir" ("Sefer Bahir") was written. It may be a reflection of earlier traditions (Scholem, "Origin of the Kabalah" p. 49-198 Idel, "Kabalah, New Perspectives" p. 122-127 and i..J. Dan, "The Problem of the Sources of the Bahir," "The Beginnings of the Jewish Mysticism in Medeivsal Europe", p. 55-72, 1987) Provides elaborations on the Talmud and the Sanhedrin passages about the Golem.This coincides with the emergence of Kabalah in Provence and Spain. Only a small number of other works during this discussed the creation of a Golem and its techniques.
"Sefer Yetzirah" recension (Gruen=B) copied in 1531. Early 13th century text, originating with the early Kabbalists of Languedoc, indicating ties between this group and the Hasidim of the Rhineland and northern France, write about Jeremiah and his son Ben Sira in a pseudo-epigraphon attributed to the Tannaite Judah ben Bathyra. (MS Halberstam, 444 (in Jewish Theological Seminary NY). This, or a copy of it, is the source for J. Reuchlin's Latin translation in 1603.
A 13c writer castigated those who said they could duplicate the feat of Hanina and Oshaya by saying that "they themselves are dumb calves."
3 statements written in the 13th century say the creation of an artifical man follows the same pattern as that of a calf, or a cow, with the latter being consumed as food, The practical purpose of the practice was not attenuated in the medieval period in Northern Europe.
13thc. William of Auvargne wrote "Men have tried to produce, and thought that they succeeded in producing human life in other ways than by the usual generative process"
1200AD Germany, the Ashkenazi Hasidism movement emerges. At the end of the 12th c. there was a virtual explosion of discussions on the golem. The "Pseudo-Sa'adyah" text was printed in Jerusalem.
The early Provencal and Catalan Kabbalists were not especially interested in the nature of the golem or the way of his creation. Only Abulafia, among the Spanish Kabbalists, was interested in this issue. He was the only Spaniard to produce a detailed recipe to create a "creature."
1200-1250 in Northern France, the circle of the Special Cherubim engaged in lengthy discussions on creating golems. The difference between these French techniques and of Ashkenazi are: they both use combinations of Hebrew letters recite letters with moving in a circle around molded dust and the golem is destroyed by reciting the original combination backwards and circling in opposite direction ("Golem!" p. 12)
1210 The death of R. Isaac of Dampierre the younger, a member of the circle of the Special Chrub. After his death, stories about him creating a golem emerged. (Idel, "Golem" p. 92)
(d.1217) Students of Rabbi Judah the Pious of Speyer in Regensburg write down a version of the legend regarding Ben Sira in "Sefer Gematrioth". Reprinted in 1887.
1230-1284 Alfonso X ruled Spain, Judeo-Christian Moselm atmopshere. Cabalah came into contact with Christianity. Cabalistic, Talmud texts translated into Spanish.
1240 Elhanan b. Yakar of London publishes a commentary on "Sefer Yetzirah", republished in 1966.
1263 "Sefer Yetzirah" "Z" Oxford Bodleian Library, 1533 (L) Paper. 'Adina-Baghdad. Published by Lambert. Hebrew compared with National Library in Jerusalem's microfilm proves almost faultless of Sa'adian recension, 300 years later. Published by Lambert in 1891.
1268 "Book of Life" ("Sefer Hayyim" attributed to R. Ezra whose commentary on Sefer Yetzirah is now lost) appears with a similar story as ""Sefer Yetzirah"" creating a man with earth as its basic element. It also connects the golem with the influence of the planets. (trans. Gershom, MSS Munich 207, Fol. 10d-11a, and Cambridge, Add 6431, Fol 9a, Wien, 1880, p 169 ("Kabal. Symb," p. 183)
late 13th c. R. Joseph ben Shalom Ashkenazi, wrote in a manuscript (Sassoon 290) a unique recipe for creating a golem including color visualization as part of the techinque ("Golem!" p. 12)
1279-1348 Abner de Burgos Christian apologist and Spanish Christian Cabalist, interpreted his own dreams in a Cabalistic manner as a sign of the truth of Christianity. Talks about the divine names and their pluarity. He wrote sseveral apologetic works in Hebrew under the Christian name Alfonso de Valladolid. "More Zedeq" was used to convert Jews who did not read Hebrew well.
1280 "Pugio fidei" written by Spanish Christian Cablaist Pedro Alfonson, Ramon Martin (1230?-1300?). He describes the YHVH, pluarity of the sacred names and attributes also favoring the Christian Trinity. He does not mention any texts, but does use the word Cabala by name and mentions his predecessor Petras Alphonsi.
"Sefer Yetzirah" recension "G" British Museum (Cat, Margoliouth) 752 (5), foll 79b-81a. Vellum. Franco-German square writing. Donnolo long recnesion of 913AD. Full of mistakes, corrupt reading, but preserves some old and important readings. Also another text at the beginning of the codex. Mistakes not re ed in Gruenwald.
"Sefer Yetzirah" "L" Paris 802 (4), foll 57b-59b. Vellum. Italian writing. Short versions, Tamim (9thc)
"Sefer Yetzirah" "M" Paris 726 (2), foll. 44b-46b. Vellum. Spanish writing of short recension, Tamim.
A comprehensive commentary on "Sefer Yezirah" was written by R. Joseph b. Shalom Ashkenazi, in Spain. But it was erroneously attriibuted to R. Abraham b. David (Scholem, "Kabalah" p. 29).
1316/17 "Sefer Yetzirah" "I" Parma De Rossi, 1390, foll. 36b-38b. Italian writing.
1325 R. Jacob ben Shalom, who came to Barcelona from Germany, said the law of destruction is nothing more than a reversal of the law of creation.
1331 commentary on "Sefer Yezirah" by Meir b. Solomon ibn Sahula (Rome, Angelica library, Ms. Or. 45).
1332-78 The rite of enchantment of the Egyptians are similar: historian Ibn Khaldun describes an enchantment he saw performed in Moslem Egypt. "We saw with our eyes one of these magicians fashion the image of the person he desired to bewitch."
c. 1350 The whole passage of Jeremiah and Ben Sira is copied in the Kabbalistic book "Peli'ah", but one changed is made. The phrase "YHWH Elohim Emeth" is crossed out leaving the word emeth, cf. ed Koretz, 1786, 36a.
c.1365 Moroccan philosopher Judah ben Nissim ibn Malka in his Arabic commentary on "Sefer Yetsirah" that students of the book were given a magical mansucript named "Sefer Raziel" and consisting of seals, magical figures, secret names, and incantations (Gershom, Kabbalah, 177 George Vajda , Juda ben... , philosophe juif maroacian, Paris, 1954, p171.)
1365-1393 "Sefer Yetzirah" "L" Paris 764 (1), foll. 1a-3a. Paper, written in Spanish (N. Africa) (Gruenwald, 136)
1390 "Sefer Yetzirah" "K" Parma De Rossi, foll 36b-38b. Italy, 1316/7. short version of Tamin (from 9thc)
1391 Laventian Codex 14 fol. 79 verso-100 recto (Florence, medici collection, catalogue Plutoeo44). This Ms. version of "Sefer Hohkmah" by Donollo.
During the 15th and 16th centuries, German Ashkenaski Hasidic scholars further devloped the Golem legends. An interest in the Golem among both Jewish and Christian authors began to develop during the Renaissance, especially in Italy where Jewish cultures developed in the 15th and 16th centuries after the expulsion from Spain. Before the Expulsion, Kabalists introduced the concept of the Golem as a way to demonstrate their superiority over Greek science and philosophy. (idel, "Golem" p 165).
In the late 15th century, recipes for creating golems were collected in N. Italy, translated into Latin, and entered into the Christian Kabalah. By the end of the 15th century, Lodoico Lazzarelli, a Christian Kabbalist, described the creation of a golem.
1405 circa, Moses Botarel wrote a commentary about "Sefer Yezirah" citing false quotations among his predecessors.
1433 or later, "Sefer Yetzirah" "N" British Museum 600 (l) foll 2a-3b. Paper. Greece (?) Short recension of Tamim (end of 9th c), 500 years later.
1486-1535 Cornelius Agrippa of Nettesheim, acquainted with the Jewish creation of a Golem. He writes: "But who can give soul to an image, life to stone, metal, wood or wax? And who can make children of Abraham come out of stones (hzv, carve from a stone)?" ("De Occulta Philosophia" II, ch. 50).
15th c. "Sefer Yetzirah" "P" Cincinnati 523. No pagination. Spanish character. short recension of Tamim. 1400ad
15th c. "Sefer Yetzirah" "Tz" British Museum, Gaster 415, foll. 29a-32a. Spanish writing. Short recension of Tamim.
late 15th c., Italy. "Sefer Yetzirah" recension "D" Firenze Mediceo-Laurentiana Pluteo II codex V (8), foll. 227a-229b, long recension of Donnalo (913)
late 15th or beginning 16th c. "Sefer Yetzirah" "Q" Moscow Ginzburg collection 133, foll. 198a-199a. Germany, uses both Tamim and Se'adian versions.
Oldest record of the golem in MS is from first half of 16thc where Nehemiah Brull found the story to the effect that Samuel the Pious, (father of Judah the Pious), central Hasidic figure, "created a golem, who could not speak but accompanied him on his long journeys through Germany and France and waited on him." (1889, p27 "Jahbrucher...", Scholem Kab & Symb, 199)
c. 1500 "Sefer Yetzirah" "R" Paris 809 (2), foll 93a,-94a. Italy. Short recension of Tamim.
1514 version of "Sefer Yetzirah" printed in Constantinople.
1517 Johannes Reuchlin's "De Arte Cabalistica" was published. It discussed the golem. It was more widely available than other books on the golem at the time. Section on "Sefer Yetzirah."
1520 The Talmuds were first collected into a concrete whole and printed in Venice.
1520(31)-1609 "Great Rabbi" ben Bezalel of Prague, R. Loew of Prague. The ability to create a golem was attributed to many people, mostly famous rabbis, like Loew. During the reign of Emporer Rudolph II, Prague was the center for arts and sciences, alchemy and occult. Not until 20 years after his death was mention made of a golem, but it was fist attributed to R. Chelm instead. About the beginning of the 19th century did legends include Loew instead of R. of Chelm.
1522-1570 "Light of the Intellect" "Or HaShekhal". Entire section presented by Ramak (R. Moshe Cordevero, 1522-1570) in his "Pardes Rimonim". "Orchard of Pomegranates"). Ramak does not attribute this method to Abulafia, but rather to an obscure "Sefer HaNikud" ("Book of Dots"). One MS, attrbuted to R. Aaron of Baghdad, 9thc. The methods are similar to the creation of a golem. see "Or Yakor" on Zohar Shir HaShirim. "The method of pronouncing the Name is found in "Or HaShekhel" by Abulafia and this method and secret of "Sefer Yetzirah" once the technique of letter permuation of Abulafia's is mastered, the next step involves in pronouncing the four letters of the Tetragrammaton, YHVH. These letters are combined with the letter Aleph, together with the 5 primary vowels.and other techniques are said to be able to produce a golem.
1531 "Sefer Yezirah" recension "Gruenwald=B" Oxford Bodleian Library (Cat Neubeaur) 1531 (8) foll 95b-103b, Vellum. Germanic writing of 12-13th c., long recension of Donnalo (913AD)
1533 Cornelious Agrippa's "De occult philosphia." (d. 1535)
1537-1583 R. Eliyahu of Chelm (Helm), known as Eliahu (Ehiyahu) Ba'al Shem, His great-grandson R. Zevi Ashkenazi (he-Hakham (1660-1718) writes that his ancestor (Eliyahu) created a golem. Zevi passed on the story to his son, R. Jacob Emden who wrote about it. In 1674 two authors wrote down a story of R. Eluyahu of Chelm.
1540 (about) "Sefer Yetzirah" "S" Leiden (Cat. Steinschneider, ...Biblithecae Akademiae Lugundo-Batavae) Warn. 24 (5) Cod. Or. 4762, foll, 140b-142a. Greek writing, from poss. Hebron, Palestine.
1552 (1551) First Latin edition of "Sefer Yetzirah" for Christian scholarship by Wilhelm Postellus (Postel), Paris, France, translated the "Sefer Yetzirah" ten years before the first Hebrew edition was printed. A second Latin version printed 25 years later. It was printed under the title "Abrahami Patriarchae Liber Jezirah, sive Formationis Mundi, Patribus quidem expositus Isaaco, et per Proetarum manus posteritati conservatis, ipsis autum 72 Mosis auditoribus in secund divine veritatis loco, hoc est in ratione, quoe est posterior authiritate, habitus. Vertebat ex Hebrais et commentaris illustrabad 1551, ad Babylonis ruinam et corrupti mundi finem, Gulielmus Postellus, Restitutus. Paris, 1552." Another Latin version in Pistorius collection is attibuted to Reuchlinus and Riccius.
In the mid-1500's, especialy in Italy, there was a wide interest in the creation of golem. Except for Paracelsus, Jewish and Christian authors limited themselves to merely repeating past traditions.
1553-c.1623 Physician and kabalist Abraham ven Hananiah Yagel, n. Italy, late 16th c., was interested in the 'meaning' of the creation of the golem. Was it witchcraft? No, it was natural magic, a form of technology. It did not involve denomic methods.
1558 The Zohar first printed in Mantua, and again in 1560 in Cremona, and at Lublin in 1623, and a 4th edition by Knorr von Rosenroth at Sulzbach in 1684. The most popular version was in 1884 Warsaw edition. 2 manuscripts were reproduced in the version, one at the end of the volume and the other among different commentaries. The two differ in 2 ways: one is repetitous while the other has abbreviations one combines what the other separates and one is more explicit than the other in both words and meanings, according to Franck, 29. To distinguish between the 2 the end of the first chapter one Ms. simply ends with the first of all comes the Spirit of the Living Gd the other add that It is the Holy spirit, the Spirit, Voice and World.
1562 (also said to be in 1592 by Waite, ("Doctrine", p. 172) "Sefer Yetzirah" recension "T2" Mantua (Hebrew version of "Sefer Yetzirah", pub .Ms: Univ Lib., Jerusalem). On microfilm in the the Microfilm Institute of the National and University Library in Jerusalem). combined both long and short version Different from Sa' aydia's version) British Museum #754 Munich MS Heb. 40. Version I had 600 words version II had 1800 words. Both are interpolations and not the origianl. II riddled with errors. The author had no concept of Hebrew or knowledge of the "Sefer Yetzirah". He looked at it basically as a cosmology based on the letters of the alphabet. A Latin version of Postel preceded it by ten years. Over a hundred MSS of "Sefer Yetzirah" most of which precede the 1562 version.
In the Mantua edition, (according to Waite, p. 175), it contained 5 major connections. "Sefer Sefiroth," or "Commentary on the Ten Sefiroth by Way of Questions and Answers," by R. Azariel ben Menahem. one by R. Abraham. Another by Saadya Gaon in the 10th c. Another attributed to Hay Gaon in early part of 11th c. Commenaties attributed to R. Moses Botrel, R. Moses ben Nahmann, R. Abraham ben David Ha Levi the younger, and R. Eliezer. Except for the last, all were prior to Leon's work on the Zohar. It is said to have been used to show that the novelty of that work ("Sefer Yetzirah") "is of form rather than material."
R. Saadya Gaon's commentary was published in Hebrew at Mantua with the "Sefer Yetzirah" (Bartolocci, "Bibliotheca Rabinnica" iv, 267). It was originally written in Arabic. Copy preserved in the Bodleian Library. It remained in MS form for over 800 years when the Arabic original was reprinted at length in Paris with a French translation in 1892 by Lambert.
1583 (or 1537 or 1) R. Eliahu Ba' al Shem of Chelm died. Ba'al Shem means Master of the Divine Name. Best known legend of the time is connected with Elijah of Chelm. The tale developed in the 17th c. He was said to have created a golem from clay by means of the "Sefer Yetzirah" by inscribing the name of Gd on its forehead, which gave it life, but withheld the power of speech. When the creature grew like a giant, he tore the life-giving name from its forehead and it crumbled into dust. The legends were transfered to R. Judah Loew ben Bezalel, not before the 18th c. R. Loew had no historical basis for this legend, tho. See 1630AD account.
Two of R. Eliahu's descendants were great Hakalists: He-Hakham Zvi and his son Jacob Emden. They discussed the legal status of the golem: could the golem be counted in a minyan, the quorem of ten men required for prayer. Human form and modicum of understanding were not enough to make something human. Also, according to Emden, the destructive potential of the golem could destroy the world.
1587 Jo. Pistorius (Pisstorii) (2nd Latin version) appeared in the first and only volume of "Artis Cabalisticae Scriptores" under the editorship of Pistorius. Differs from Postel., 35 yrs later. Some say Paul Riccius, others say John Reuchlin either wrote it. A third Latin translation was done about 60 years later.
1592 Loew had an audience with the Emporer, but the details of this meeting are only in legend Loew demonstrated the creation of a golem and revealed other secrets.
1602 Rabbi Loew of Prague dies.
ed. 1603 MS Halberstam 444 .i, (in the Jewish Theological Seminary in NY) Fol. 7b, and MS Florence, Laurantiana, Pl. II, Cod. 41, Fol 200. The Halbertam MS, or a copy of it, is the source of the Latin translation in J. Reuchlin's "De Arte Cabalistica," ed 1603, col 759 (Gershom, Kabblah, 180)
1614 Friedrich Brenz reports that Jews had a magical device "which is called Hamor Golem (!) they make an image of mud resembling a man, whisper or mumble certain spells in his ears, which make the image walk." Cf Rosenfield, p39, Scholem Kab & Sym. 199.
1615 Zalman Zevi of Aufenhausen, "The apostate said that there are those among the Jews who take a lump of clay, fashion it into a man, and whisper incantations and spells, whereupon the figure lives and moves. In the reply which I wrote for the Chrisitian I made the turncoat look ridiculous, for I said that he himself must be fashioned from just such kneaded lumps of clay and loam, without any sense or intelligence, and that his father must have been such a wonder worker, for as he writes, we call such an image a homer golem [an unshape, raw mass of material], which may be rendered "a monstrous ass" [a really good pun], which I say is a perfect description of him. I myself have never seen such a peformance, but some of the sages possessed the power to do this, by means of the "Book of Creation"...
We German Jews have lost this mystical tradition, but in Palestine there are still to be found some men who can perform great wonders through the Kabbalah. Our fools [another pun on the word golem] are not created out of clay, but come from their mother's wombs." Basically, it says it can be done, but not by us any longer because the knowledge is lost." Even though he puts it down, he admits at the end the Jewish attitude on the subject- it can be done, but no longer by us.
1625 the Italian-Jewish doctor, scientist and encyclopedic scholar Joseph Solomon Del Medigo, in his journeys through Germany, Poland and Lithuania, wrote, "many (golem) legends of this sort are current, particularly in Germany." He quotes above story about Abraham ibn Ezra and continues about Solomon ibn Gabirol (11thc poet) who created a golem and was denounced by the government, but proved the creature was not real by reducing her to the wood and hinges. Solomon Ibn Gabirol,
1630 The earliest known written legend of a contemporary figure creating a golem. Anonymous MS. It does not mention R. Loew, but recounts story of R. Eliahu of Chelm who used the "Sefer Yetzirah" to create a golem. The golem continued to grow that the rabbi had to destroy it by erasing the "A" aleph, first letter from the word emet (truth). Other legends date as late as 1660.
(1642, Waite) 1648 or 1653 "Emek ha-Melekh," Amsterdam, by Kabalist R. Naphtali ben Jacob Bacharach of Frankfurt who included a set of incomplete instructions in one of his Kabalistic texts. (Scholem, "Kab. & Symbol"., p. 185)
1642, a third Latin edition of "Sefer Yetzirah", with Hebrew translation (same one published by Rittangelius? Date used by Waite), with commentary by Rabbi Abraham F. ben Dior, Amsterdam. He translated it and added notes. (see "Emek"), included the commentary by Abraham ben David Ha Levy the younger (Dior). Titled "Liber Jesirah quie Abrahamo patriarchae adscribitur, una cum commentario Rabbi Abraham F.D. (ie, Ben Dior) super 32 Semitis Sapientiae...Translatus et Notis illustratus a Joanne Stephano Rittanhelio ...Amstekodami, 1642."
The 32 Paths are given in Hebrew and Latin, followed by part of the commentary by R. Abraham (about the Paths of Wisdom), in Latin and Hebrew. and an explanation by Rittangelius quoting many authorities including the Zohar and Supplements. After the Path discussion is the "Sefer Yetzirah" text in Latin and Hebrew. The first was in 1551 by Postel. The 2nd 25 years later.
1644 Latin version of the 1562 "Sefer Yetzirah" with a commentary by Vorstius.
1652 another Latin edition with commentary published by Joanne Stephano Rittangelio Rittangehus (Rittangel, Rittanhello) (Latin vers. "Sefer Yetzirah") "Liber Yezirah qui Abrahamo patriarche adscribitur, una cum commentario R . Abraham F.D. (filii Dior) super 32 Semitiis Sapientiae, a quibus liber Yezirah incipit." This was issued in 1830.
1663 R. Eliahu of Chelm dies.
1660-1718 Cacham Zvi, the great-grandson of Rabbi Eliahu of Chelm, He wrote that his ancestor, R. Eliahu of Chelm, created a golem.
1674 Johann Christoph Wagenseil published a letter from Christoph Arnold who wrote end of his "Sota hoc est Liber Mischnicus de uxore adulterii suspecta," Altdorf,
1674 p118-9., retranslated by Johann Jakob Schudt, in Frankfort, 1714, which was taken from W.E. Tentzel, 1689, p145, trans by Scholem "Kaba. Symb, p200) .
1675 Johann Wulfer ("Animadversiones to Sol. Zevi Uffenausen's "Theriaca Judaica, Hanover 1675, p69) wrote that in Poland there were "excellent builders who can make mute famuli from clay inscribed with the name of Gd." He could not find any eyewitnesses (, Scholem, "Kaba. Symb., 200)
1680 6 Hebrew editions of "Sefer Yetzirah" collected and printed at Lemberg. Oldest contains the recensions of Sa'adya Gaon.
1682 Johann Schmidt, wrote "apart from speaking," these creatures "perform all sorts of human activities for forty days and carry letters like messengers wherever they are sent, even a long way. But if after 40 days the parchment is not removed from the forehead, they inflict great damage upon the person or possessions of their master or his family."
1684 4th edition of "Sefer Yezirah" published by Knorr von Rosenroth at Sulzbach.
1713 An edition published in Amsterdam with preface by M. ben J. Chagiz, (2nd Amsterdam edition, 1642 was the first)
1714 or 1718 German, anti-Semitic Orientalist, Johann Jakob Schudt wrote "Judische Merkwur-digkeiten," ("Jewish Marvels"): Frankfort, Pt II, Book IV, p. 206ff (taken from Tentzel, 1689 and (1682) Johann Schmidt, quoted Schudt, p. 67-9. C. Arnold's
1674 account was reported in Schudt's book. This become the source for Jacob Grimm's' version published almost 100 years later.
1719 A version of "Sefer Yetzirah," published in Constantinople now in British Museum.
1745 an edition of "Sefer Yetzirah" published in Zolkkiew.
About mid-18th c. the golem legend about R. Chelm moved to Prague and became related with the "Great Rabbi" Loew of Prague (c.1520-1609) In the Prague legend certain special features of the Sabbath eve were associated.
1779 an edition of "Sefer Yetzirah" published in Korzec, by Moses ben Jacob, Zozec.
1784 nearly the entire commentary on "Sefer Yezirah" by Abraham Abulafia (Munich Ms. 58) is in the "Sefer ha Peli'ah" (Koretz, 1784, fols. 50-56).
1786 the legend of Jeremiah and Ben Sira, c. 1350 is copied in the Kabbalistic book "Peli'ah." (c. 1350), cf. ed Koretz, 1786, 36a.
1797 R. Elijah, the Gaon of Vilna, Lithuanian rabbinical authority, owned to his student R. Hayim, founder of the Talmudic academy of Volozhin, said that as a young boy, under 13, he undertook making a golem. In the middle of his preparations, a form passed overhead and he stopped. (In R. Hayim's introduction to the commentary of the "Vilna Gaon" on the "Sifra de-Tseni'utha", a part of the Zohar, ed Vilna, 1819 (Scholem, "Kabalah Symbolism" 204)
At end of 18th century, R. Pinhas Eliahu Horowitz composed the "Sefer ha-Berit," an encyclopedic work of Kabalah and science. He discusses the creation of a" golem by the Divine Names and holy letters in the "Sefer Yezirah". He also wrote about it in the book "Beit ha-Yozer", which he composed the "Sefer Yezirah". ["Sefer ha-Berit", 1799]
The golem legend is a favorite literary subject among Jews and non-Jews. It begins in German, then Hebrew and Yiddish legends which was changed in various ways. Later, they mostly deal with the golems ability to save the Jews from persecution of the libelous accusations placed by their enemies to arose fears. Those legends were probably composed after the resurgence of accusations of ritual murder in the 1890's.
1806 an edition published at Grodno, with 5 commentaries.
1808 April 23 Jakob Grimm published a golem story in the "Zeitung fur Einsiedler (Journal for Hermits)". The story was derived from the 1714 version by Schudt, which was adapted from the 1674 account by C. Arnold. of R. Eliahu of Chelm. This story by Grimm influence many people.
1811 Germany, Ludwig Achim von Arim's tale "Isabella von Agrpten" ("Isabella of Egypt"), "Kaiser Karls de Funften erste Jugendliebe" (Novelle), written in 1811 and published in 1812. Use of the golem as a doplleganger. He learned of the golem legend from Grimm and dedicated Isabella to them.
1812 an edition printed in Dyhernfurth.
1812 influenced by Grimm's tale, Ludwig Achim von Arnim incorporated golem into his characters. Heinrich Heine's discussion of Arnim made the golem more known.
1822 German edition of Hoffman, E. T. A., "Die Deheimnisse" (Novelle).
1830 German edition of "Sefer Yetzirah" published by John (Johann) Friedrich von Meyer D.D. "Yetzirah" in Hebrew with German explanatory notes in Leipzig.1836 states another source. Rittangelius edition issued by Meyer, at Lepsic. German with Hebrew text.
1831 an edition of "Sefer Yetzirah" printed at Salonica (Salonika)
1837 Auerback, Berthold, Spinoza, ein poetisches Lebenagemalde (Roman)
1841 Philippson, Gustav, "Der Golem" (Gedicht)
1842 Tendlau, Abraham, "Der Golem des Hoch-Rabbi-Lob" (Gedicht)
1842 Horn, Uffo Daniel (Psued.: Therese von M.) "Der Rabbi von Prag" (Novelle)
1844 Skepsgardh, Otto von, Drei Vorreden, ".iRosen un Golem-Tieck" (Roman)
1844 Droste-Hulshoff, Annete von, i."Die Golems" (Gedicht- "poem")
1846 Weisel (Sippulrim), "Der Golem"(Erzahlung)
1847 the first known account of R. Loew's golem, by Leopald Weisel, published by Wolf Pascheles in "Sippurim" (1847-1856)
1849 German translation and commentary at Frankfort. Christian theologian. Leipezig. By L. Goldschmidt.
1851 Edition by Storm, Theodor, "Ein Golem" (Gedicht).
Since 1856, there have been a continuous flow of stories about Rabbi Loew and his golem.
1858 Hebbel, Freidrich, "Ein Steinwurf oder Opfer um Opfer" (musik. Drama)
1860 The book "Yetzirah" published in Lemberg with commentaries from Saadia Gaon, Rabbi Abraham ben Dior Halevi, Rabbi Moses ben Nacham, Elieser of Germisa, Moses Botarel, Rabbi Eliah Wilna.
1869 ("Entstehung, origin, rise) der Verlagspoesie (publication, poetry, verse)" in Kleinere Schriften von Jakob Grimm, 4. Band (Berlin, 1869), p22. Translation above, Plank.
1868 "Die harmonikale Symbolik des Altertum" (Cologne), p 370-395, by Albert von Thimus argues that "Sefer Yetzirah" probably originated from the periods shortly before the end of the Babylonia exile. "Sefer Yetzirah" is mentioned in the Jerusalem Talmud.
1872 Kalisch, Ludwig, "Die Geschichte von dem Golem" (romanzen)
1874 an edition of "Sefer Yetzirah" published in Jersulaem.
1874 commentary on "Sefer Yezirah" by Elijah b. Solomon, the Gaon of Vilna.
1877 (1873, Scholem), Rev. Dr. Isidor Kalisch, "Sefer Yetzirah, A Book on Creation or The Jewish Metaphysics of Remote Antiquity, with English translation, Preface, Explantory notes and Glossary by Rev. Dr. Isidor Kalisch." First English translation. Rosecrucian, Masonic. Reproduced many of Meyer's annotations. Hebrew side by side with English. Says, "contains nothing but a medley of arbitrary, mystical explanations and sophisticated distributions of scriptural verses, astrological notions, oriental superstitions, a metaphysical jargan, a poor knowledge of physics..." in reference to the book "Yetzirah," published 1860. Draws from Mayer and mentions Rittangelus, Postell., Saadya, etc. Said to be first English translation. by Dr. Kalisch. Some material courtesy of the "Secrect Teachings of All Ages"
1880 a 3rd commentary from the 10th century written by Shabbetai Donnolo was published by D. Castelli, Firenze, with a comprehensive introduction.
1882 Bermann, Moritz, "Die Legende von Golem " (Erzahlung)
1883 (Scholem), translation, with commentary by A. Edersheim.
1884 Warsaw, Poland, most popular version. with 9 commentaries. Scholem says its distorted. Polish I and Polish II versions. Most of today's circulated sources are no earlier than this version.
1885 S.Z. Halberstamm (Berlin) publishes the 12th century work by Judah b. Barzillai of Barcelonia.
1887, 1893 (1911, Scholem), 1890 "Sepher Yetzirah, The Book of Formation," W. Wynn Westcott, MB. JP. Supreme Magus of the Rosicrucian Society of England. 3rd edition Samuel Wesier, Inc. Translated from the Hebrew. Follows Golden Dawn. Translates Hebrew into English, and collated with Latin versions of Pistorius, Postellus and Rittangelius, following the latter, rather than former commentaries.
1888 (1887, by Waite) French edition by Dr. Papus. He added the 32 Paths of Wisdom and 50 Gates of Intelligence. Followed Pistorius, Postellus, Rittangelius, Golden Dawn and Rosecrucian,
1889 Eleazar b. Judah of Worms, one of the several Hasidei Ashkenaz who wrote on the "Sefer Yetzirah," in its entirety in Przemysl.
1891 or 92 Mayer Lambert, Paris, Arabic edition "Commentaire Sur le Sefer Yetzirah Par le Gaon Saadya, edited French version of Sadaaya Gaon on display in Bodleian Library, translated into French and printed in Paris from the MS Oxford 1533 Mantua edition.
1883 A translation of "Sefer Yezirah" in English by A. Edersheim.
1894 (Scholem), Edition by L. Goldschmidt published.
1895 Text of Isaac Luria (Loria) according to L. Goldschmidt: also Goldschmidt text from an Arabic Commentary on "Sefer Yetzirah." Accord. to "Jewish Quartly Review, 19:1928. Goldschmidt constructed a poor text from four existing versions instead of any one version.
1896 Peter Davidson, English version, which adds the "50 Gates of Intelligence" and "32 Paths of Wisdom"
1894 "Sefer Jezirah- Das Buch der Schopfung"
1898 Lilieneron, Detlev von, "Der Golem (Novelle)"
Late 19th century visual artists brought the golem legend into development. The earliest work was in 1897 or 99 by Czech, Mikolas Ales, a non-Jew, depicting Rabbi Loew of Prague conjuring a golem with Hebrew letters GLM on its forehead instead of the letters "emet" (truth")
1900 Luther, Rudolf "Der Golem" (Novelle)
1902 M. Grossberg publishes a version of the Dunash Tamim with a commentary apparently based on the lectures of Isaac Israeli, Abu Sahl's instructor.
1902 A.E. Waite published "Doctrine and Literature of the Kabalah." His chapter on "Sefer Yetsirah" gives a good overview, but he labels the book as an "arbitary doctrine of a virtue inherent in words and letters" whch "can only be scandalised at the childish nature of Yetziratic tabulations."
1902 Rathenan,Walter, "Rabbi Eliesers Weib" (Legende)
1903 Salus, Hugo, "Vom Hohen Rabbi Low" (Ballade)
1903 "Otot u-Mo'adim" by Joshua Eisenback of Prystik (Pol. Przystyk) commentary on "Sefer Yezirah" printed.
1904 Torresani, Karl Baron von, "Der Diener" (Novelle)
1906 Artur Holitscher offers his golem drama to the Deutsches Theatre. It was rejected after several changes.
1908 Munzer, Georg, "Der Marchenkantor" (Roman)
1909 Yudl Rosenberg publishes a legend of the golem and R. Loew. According to him, he was publishing an original letter of the Maharal's and a MS written by R. Loew's son-in-law recounting th deeds of the Rabbi. For the first time, the Jews are rescued froma blood libel. During Rosenbuerg's time, false accusations and blood libel became a real threat agin during the Hislner case in Czechoslovakia in 1899. He published the tales in Hebrew and Yiddish. They form the basis of Chiajaim Bloch's version, published in 1919.
1911 letter to Carl Jung from Sigmond Freud discussing the prevalence of the doppelganger . Pairs consisting of a nable and base part (usually brothers) are a motif running through all legend and literature...In Gilgamesh, this age-old motif of the unequal pair of brothers served to reprsent the relationship between a man and his libido." ("The Feud/Jung Letters", Princeton, 1974)
1912 April, Phineas Mordell published thesis "The Origin of Letters and Numerals According to the Sefer Yetzirah" in the "Jewish Quarterly Review "April 1912 vol. II, and April 1913 vol. III. The book version was published by the Dropsie College in Philadelphia Pa, republished by Samuel Weiser, Inc. "Sefer Yetzirah"" combines oriental and Greek theories. As it was handed down, it was probably re-written to fit with the culture of the time. He says:
2 versions of "Sefer Yetzirah" commentators of 9th c. mixed the original ""Sefer Yetzirah"" with an early commentary, referred to as ""Sefer Yetzirah" II" All commentaries written since the beginning of the 10th C. based on this commentary and not the original. Shorter & longer version (longer printed as an appendix) Existed in 10th c. earliest written form, 11c (?)found in Cairo Genizah, published by AM Haberman (1947). Divided into 6 chapters of mishnayot or halakot. "Sefer Yetzirah" represents permutations in which letters never repeat themselves but only change their place. Factors up to 7 are provided, then told to "go and count further..." All words arising from the combination of the letters are combined and permuted with the Tetragrammaton, called by "Sefer Yetzirah" as the One Name YHVH, from which emanated the whole of creation and all of language. According to "Sefer Yetzirah", the alphabet also had vowels, which were the letters of the Tet. themselves. The "great secret" of the 3 mothers accord to Dunash Ibn Tamim, are the 3 vowels AIY. The consonants are dependant on the vowels. The vowels and consonants were made in the form of a "state and arranged like an army in battle array." Issac Taylor says, "Like soldiers on parade the characters in the alphabetic line have been dressed."
1912-13, published in Philadelphia by the author. It is dated 1914 because no copies became available of the thesis in america until 1921 because of the Great War, according to a note on a slip, reported by AE Waite in 1970. It was later published under title "The Origin of Letters and Numerals According to the Sefer Yetzirah " (Philadelphia), p6.
1913 Translation of "Sefer Yezirah" in French by Duchess C. de Cimara and in a translation by E. Bischoff.
1914 Phineas Mordell interprets "Sefer Yetzirah" in "Jewish Quarterly Review"
1914 Heb, Johannes, "Der Rabbiner von Prag" (Drama)
1915 The writing of Gustav Meyerink (Meyer) "Der Golem" in 1915 (Leipez) were inspired by this period. It was later translated into English as "The Golem" in 1964 and in Yiddish as "Der Golem" by H. Leiveck.(Gershom, 188):
"Then, take a bowl full of pure water and a small spoon. Fill it with pure earth from a mountain, with exact weight of earth before stirring (shake it) and exact measurement of spoon which to measure. When filled, scatter it and slowly blow the earth across, over the water.
1916 Hauschner, Auguste, "Der Tod des Lowen" (Novellle)
1915 the first film, "Der Golem," dealing with the theme of the golem by Paul Wegener. Second one two years later. The film takes place in the 20th century.
1916 Antonin Fencl's "Golem. Fantasticka Hra (Golem. A Fantastic Play). Milos Klicman draws the book cover
1917 the second film, "Der Golem und die Tanzerin " ("The Golem and the Dancer"), a satirical description of making movies, dealing with the theme of the golem by Paul Wegener. First one was in 1915. Third one was three years later.
1918 Wasserman, Jakob, "Christian Wahnschaffe " (Roman)
1918 Singer, Irma, "Wohin der Golem die kranken Manner bringen lieb" (Marchen)
1919 Chaijam Bloch's version of R. Loew and the golem published in Vienna. By this time, the golem has become well known in arts, writings and film.
1920, October 29, the premiere of "Der Golem: Wie er in die Welt kam (The Golem: How He Came Into The World) at the Ufa Palast am Zoo in Berlin. Paul Wegener's 3rd film dealing with the theme of the golem, takes place in the 16th century. There are twenty prints of this film left. First released in 1915 (takes place in the 20th century), and 1917. Wegener wanted to produce the film in 1914, but did not get the investment money he needed from the producer. Wegener also had a disagreement in 1928 with Holitscher who accused im of plagarizing his 1908 drama, "Der Golem".
1921 (Scholem) an edition published in Czech by O. Griese
1921 Wagener published a novel on the golem with some film stills.
1921 summer, "The Golem, wie er in die Welt kam, erdacht und ins Werk gesetzt (Fimmanuskript)" was shown for almost a year at the Criterion Film Theatre in New York. Wegener, Paul,
1921-22 Albert Kovessy's musical play "Golem" at Gabel's Yiddish theatre on 116th St. in New York. Gabels' concetion was indebted to Wegeners.
1922 Nottebohm, Horst, "Sun"k (Novelle)
1923 "The Book of Formation (Sepher Yetzirah)" By Rabbi Akiba Ben Joseph, translated from the Hebrew with annotations by Stenring, Knut, Helsingborg, Sweden through London, Rider & Sons. Has several mistakes. Used Goldschmidt's versions with errors. See Blumenthal. Reprinted in 1970. Knut Stenring used Gold. Hebrew and German versions and did not use any Hebrew words independent of Goldsmidt. It is similar to Mordell's study from "Origin of Letters" Stenring makes some mistakes in Hebrew, accord to Phineas Mordell in "Jew. Quar. Rev, 191928,p 79). On p 45 he misuses a word.In Jew. Quart. Rev., 1913, p523, Mordell wrote another "Sefer Yetzirah" article. The Great Secret is hidden in the three letters A, M, Sh termed as mothers.
1923 (Scholem) an Italian edition of "Sefer Yezriah" published by S., Savini
1926, November 14, Eugen d'Albert composes an opera with libretto by Ferdinand d'Albert Lion, entitled "Der Golem." a musicdrama which premiered in Frankfort an performed in other cities.
1927 The opera "Der Golem" was performed in Leipzig.
1928 Manly R. Hall published a compilation of the "Sefer Yetsirah" in his "Secrect Teachings of All Ages," a Rosicurcian and Masonic study of occultism.
1928 Arthur Holitsche accuses Wegener of plagiarizing his drama "Der Golem."Ghettelegende in drei Aufzugen (Berlin 1908). The drama was a psychological interpretation of the golem legend.
1931 a Hungarian edition published by B. Tennen
1932 "Jezirah" by G. Scholem in Encyclopedia Judaica (Berlin)), vol. 9, col. 104ff.
1933 Gershom Scholem begins his study on the golem.
1934 Rosenfeld, Beate "Die Golemsage und ihre Verwertung in der deutschen Literatur" Verg Dr. Han Priebtach, Breslau)
1965 Commentary to "Sefer Yetzirah" published, written by a 13th century unknown author, possibly in France, and attributed to R. Sa'adiyah Gaon ("Pseduo-Sa'adiyah") published.
1966-68 "Jewish Quarterly Review" p57-58 "The Sefer Yetsirah and the Original Tetragrammaton" by Eliyahu Rosh-Pinnah, Berlin (Ernst E. Sttish)
1966 G. Vajda edites a version of Elhanan b. Yakar (c.1240) commentary on "Sefer Yetzirah" (in "Kovez al Yad, 145-97).
1968 Carlos Suarez publishes his edition of "Sefer Yetzirah".
1970 "The Book of Formation" by Rabbi ben Joseph, translated from 1923 edition from the Hebrew, with annotations by Knut Stenring, with an introduction by Arthur Edward Waite, published by KTAV Publishing House, Inc., New York. (BM 525,A412, ??). Waite sites the 1552 Latin translation by the Christian mystic G. Postel and printed before the Hebrew edition.
1977 Irving Friedman, translation and commentary, "Book of Creation," published by Samuel Weiser. ISBN 0-87728-289-7, Library of Congress Catalog Number 76-15537
1977 second printing of Kalisch 1877 book on "Sefer Yetsirah."
1982 d'Alberts 1927 opera "Der Golem," is revived in Saarbrucken.
1987-present Robert Zucker begins to re-translate the Sefer Yetsirah on a HyperCard stack called "Sefer Yetzirah: The Magic of Formation" and composes the manuscript "Sefer Yetzirah."
1990 "The Golem" published by Moshe Idel, State Press of New York, Albany. Covers the development of the golem legend tied with the Sefer Yetzirah.
1990 "Sefer Yetzirah: The book of Creation in Theory and Practice" by Aryeh Kaplan (died 1983) published. The most indepth English study of each verse with Hebrew and English translations. Lists of editions, versions and commentaries. Reproduction of Gates and other
"Sefer Yetzirah" Home Page
2005 Copyright EMOL.org/Robert Zucker